1. My Google results show site links underneath of WordPress posts, I want google to see the posts
Google usually pick up site links from the home page. Looks like your current site link have been picked up because you have emphasized with H2 on that specific part/article from your home page.
You can demote any site links you don`t like at anytime but that only half-solve the problem.
The main thing for you is to be able to choose another site link which you deem to be more relevant. Since you cannot just do that in Google interface, because that option is not (yet) available, you can smatly play with your home page content to influence Google on its next site links pick.
In order to be able to "choose" other site links try to emphasize another snippet of text with a link to a certain section of your website you wish it amplified. Just play with headings (mark up with them) specially h1, h2 which will help you emphasize those sections you wish to be listed as site links.
2. Does Google consider including superlatives like "the best" in titles/meta description as marketing spam?
UPDATE: Google does not penalize for superlatives like "the best" in SERP if used with moderation. This means do not spam with keywords, use them wisely.
The visitors however decide if your product "worth" to carry these superlatives and thus the social media shares could increase and that can be a good sign for Google that your content is of high quality, OR could attract negative comments thus the consequences. So be careful how/when/where you use them.
4. Is Google taking unfair advantage?
If you feel this is a spammy website which made this in purpose, feel free to post a Spam Report directly to Google, following this this link: